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Tata Nama Senyawa Alkana ( Part II )

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1. Tata Nama Senyawa Alkana


 Seperti yang sudah sobat ketahui sebelumnya bahwa senyawa alkana ini memiliki rumus molekul CnH2n+2 serta senyawa alkana ini memiliki ikatan tunggal pada rantai karbonya. Dalam penamaanya, kita akan menamai senyawa alkana ini berdasarkan rantai karbonya, ada rantai lurus dan ada rantai yang bercabang , untuk kali ini kita akan menamai senyawa alkana yang memiliki rantai lurus.
A Penamaan Senyawa Alkana Yang Memiliki Rantai Lurus
Untuk penamaan senyawa alkana yang memiliki rantai lurus, maka dalam memberikan nama pada senyawanya harus diberi awalan ( n - ) serta diakhiri dengan akhiran -ana. berikut ini contohnya :
 CH4  =  n - Metana
CH3-CH3  =   C2H6  =  n - Etana
CH3-CH2-CH3 =  C3H8 = n - Propana
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 =  C4H10 = n - Butana
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 =  C5H12 = n - Pentana
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 =  C6H14 = n - Heksana
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 =  C7H16 = n - Heptana 
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 =  C8H18 = n - Oktana
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 =  C9H20 = n - Nonana
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 =  C10H22  =  n - Dekana

Sangat gampang kan sob ? ok sekarang kita lanjut ke yang kedua....


B. Penamaan Senyawa Alkana Yang Memiliki Rantai Bercabang

Untuk penamaan senyawa alkana yang memiliki rantai bercabang, ada aturan khusus yang harus sobat pahami terlebih dahulu yaitu :

1. Rantai terpanjang merupakan rantai induk dari senyawa alkana 

Contoh :


2. Rantai cabang harus diberikan nomor dengan nomor sekecil mungkin yaitu dengan cara mencari rantai cabang yang terdapat pada ujung rantai induk terdekat.

Contoh :

Tata Nama Senyawa Alkana

3. Nama rantai cabang harus diberi akhiran -il

Contoh : Misalnya cabangnya CH3, CH3 ini berasal dari CH4 yaitu metana maka harus diganti dengan akhiran -il sehingga namanya berubah menjadi Metil .

- C2H5  = berasal dari etana  =  Etil
- C3H7  = berasal dari propana  =  Propil
- C4H9  = berasal dari butana  =  Butil
- C5H11 = berasal dari pentana  =  Pentil / Amil
- C6H13 = berasal dari heksana = Heksil  dan  seterusnya....

4. Jika rantai cabang jumlahnya lebih dari satu dan masih dari 1 jenis senyawa yang sama maka pada nama rantai cabangnya harus diberi awalan yunani.

Contoh :


5. Jika rantai cabang jumlahnya lebih dari satu , tetapi berlainan jenis senyawanya, maka penamaan rantai cabang dilakukan sesuai abjad.

Contoh :


Maka penamaanya rantai cabangnya 4 Etil, 3 Metil karena penamaanya harus sesuai abjad, maka E ditulis duluan daripada M.

Contoh :


Mana yang duluan ditulis, propil atau metil ? metil ya kak ? ya tepat ! maka penamaan rantai cabangnya 2 metil , 3 propil.

Nah , itulah kelima aturan penamaan senyawa alkana yang harus sobat pahami terlebih dahulu. jika sobat sudah paham , maka sekarang saatnya kita ke contoh penamaan senyawa alkana ini, silahkan disimak !!

Selanjutnya >> Contoh Penamaan
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