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MATERI TENTANG PENGANGGURAN LENGKAP

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Definisi pengangguran,macam macam pengangguran dan dampak,dan cara mengatasinya



Pengangguran


Definisi pengangguran secara teknis adalah semua orang dalam referensi waktu tertentu, yaitu pada usia angkatan kerja yang tidak bekerja, baik dalam arti mendapatkan upah atau bekerja mandiri, kemudian mencari pekerjaan, dalam arti mempunyai kegiatan aktif dalam mencari kerja tersebut. Selain definisi di atas masih banyak istilah arti definisi pengangguran diantaranya:
Definisi pengangguran menurut Sadono Sukirno pengangguran adalah suatu keadaan dimana seseorang yang tergolong dalam angkatan kerja ingin mendapatkan pekerjaan tetapi belum dapat memperolehnya
Definisi pengangguran menurut Payman J. Simanjuntak  pengangguran adalah orang yang tidak bekerja berusia angkatan kerja yang tidak bekerja sama sekali atau bekerja kurang dari dua hari selama seminggu sebelum pencacahan dan berusaha memperoleh pekerjaan.
Definisi pengangguran berdasarkan istilah umum dari pusat dan latihan tenaga kerja

B. Macam macam pengangguran dan penyeabnya
Macam macam penangguran :
1. Pengangguran Friksional : setiap pengangguran yang hanya menganggur sementara yang diakibatkan adanya batasan atau kendala tertentu (dapat berupa waktu,informasi,ataupun batasan jarak geografis).
2. Pengangguran struktural : setiap pengangguran yang disebabkan oleh rendahnya kemampuan ataupun kualifikasi tenaga kerja sehingga perusahaan yang membuka lowongan pekerjaan tidak menerimanya sebagai tenaga kerja.
3. Pengangguran musiman : setiap pengangguran yang sifatnya sementara yang disebabkan oleh terjadinya fluktuasi kegiatan ekonomi perusahaan dalam jangka waktu pendek, yang menyebabkan perusahaan tempat pengangguran biasa bekerja harus menghentikan aktivitas produksi untuk sementara.
4. Pengangguran siklikal : setiap pengangguran yang disebabkan oleh imbas kondisi ekonomi yang berlangsung, yang menyebabkan ketersediaan lowongan pekerjaan tidak sesuai dengan ketersediaan tenaga kerja.
Penyebab Pengangguran :
1. Pertumuhan ekonomi yang jauh lebih kecil dari pada pertumbuhan angkatan kerja
2. Jumlah lapangan kerja yang tersedia lebih kecil dari jumlah pencari kerja
3. Kompetensi pencari kerja tidak sesuai dengan pasar kerja
4. Kurang efektifnya informasi pasar kerja bagi pencari kerja
5. Masih sulitnya arus modal asing
6. Tekanan kenaikan upah ditengah duni usaha yang masih lesu
7. Kemiskinan ketimpangan pendapatan
8. Urbanisa
9. Stabilitas politik yang tidak stabil
10. Keberadaan pasar global dll.


C.Bagaimana dampak pengangguran dan cara mengatasinya
Dampak penggangguran :
1. Pengangguran dapat menghilngkan mata pencaharian
2. Pengangguran dapat menghilangkan keterampilan
3. Pengangguran akan menimbulkan kesetabilan sosial politik
4. Bertambahnya tingkat kemiskinan
5. Timbulnya kriminalitas di kalangan masyarakat

Cara mengatasinya :
1. Menyelenggarakan bursa pasar kerja
2. Menggalakan kegiatan ekonomi inpormal
3. Meningkatkan keterampilan tenaga kerja
4. Meningkatkan mutu pendidikan
5. Mendirikan pusat - pusat latihan kerja
6. Meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi
7. Mendorong investasi
8. Meningkatkan transmigrasi
9. Memperluas lapangan pekerjaan

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