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Pengertian Dan Penjelasan Mengenai Larutan

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Larutan merupakan suatu campuran homogen antara dua atau lebih jenis zat yang membentuk satu kesatuan fase. Jadi dapat dikatakan bahwa bila suatu campuran hanya membentuk satu fase maka ia dapat dikatakan sebagai larutan. Banyak contoh-contoh larutan yang ada dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari,contoh realnya ialah udara. Udara dapat kita sebut sebagai larutan karena udara mengandung berbagai jenis gas seperti Oksigen,Karbon Dioksida,Nitrogen Dioksida,Argon,Neon dll. Gas-gas tersebut bergabung dan bercampur membentuk udara, sehingga sesuai dengan defenisi larutan maka udara dapat kita katakan sebagai larutan.Air laut juga dapat kita katakan sebagai larutan karena air laut mengandung garam-garam mineral seperti NaCl,MgCl2 dan garam mineral lainya.

Campuran yang saling melarutkan satu sama lain dalam segala perbandingan disebut dengan larutan "miscible". Contoh larutan miscible misalnya larutan alkohol dan udara. Suatu larutan dapat dikatakan sebagai larutan homogen jika struktur partikel-partikel zat terlarut berada dalam ukuran molekuler dengan diameter sekitar 1-5 Amstrong dan partikel tersebut tersebar secara acak dan merata pada medium pelarutnya. Contohnya seperti larutan alkohol tadi, molekul-molekul dari alkohol akan menyebar merata di pelarut air dengan ukuran yang sangat kecil yaitu kurang dari 5 Amstrong. Molekul-molekul alkohol tersebut akan tersebar merata dan bergerak secara acak dalam medium air.


Dalam larutan cair, cairan dapat dikatakan sebagai pelarut sedangkan zat padat atau gas dapat dikatakan sebagai zat terlarut. Jika kedua-duanya merupakan cairan maka zat yang jumlahnya lebih banyak dan tidak mengalami perubahan struktur saat dicampurkan maka ia dapat dikatakan sebagai pelarut,sedangkan zat yang jumlahnya lebih sedikit dan mengalami perubahan struktur saat dicampurkan maka ia dapat dikatakan sebagai zat terlarut. Contohnya pada proses pengenceran HCl pekat, HCl pekat dan air sama-sama berada pada fase cairan,karena HCl memiliki volume yang lebih sedikit serta mengalami perubahan struktur saat dilarutkan ke dalam air,maka HCl dapat kita sebut sebagai zat terlarut sedangkan air dapat kita sebut sebagai pelarut.

Masih bersinggungan dengan masalah larut melarut, Saya punya pertanyaan buat adik-adik, apakah sirup dapat dikatakan sebagai larutan ? Ya sirup merupakan larutan karena sirup mengandung gula yang bercampur secara homogen dengan air meskipun jumlah gula lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan air, tetapi struktur gula berubah saat dicampurkan dengan air sehingga gula kita sebut sebagai zat terlarut.

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