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Mengenal Unsur-Unsur Transuranium

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Unsur-unsur transuranium ialah unsur yang memiliki nomor atom yang lebih besar dari uranium ( Ar = 92 ). Unsur transuranium ini pertama kali ditemukan oleh Mcmillan dan Abelson dari university berkeley pada tahun 1944. Mereka menamai unsur tersebut dengan nama Neptunium, dengan nomor atom 93. Mereka memproduksi unsur neptunium ini dengan cara melakukan pemboman terhadap unsur uranium dengan neutron. Reaksi pemboman ini memberikan U-239, melalui penangkapan neutron, tetapi inti U-239 meluruh dalam beberapa hari dengan memancarkan sinar beta membentuk neptunium-239.


Unsur transuranium berikutnya yang ditemukan adalah plutonium ( Ar = 94 ). Inti deutron, H-2 yang bermuatan positif dimasukkan ke dalam siklotron dan diarahkan pada uranium menghasilkan neptunium-238, yang meluruh menjadi plutonium-238.


Isotop plutonium lain adalah plutonium-239 yang sekarang diproduksi dalam jumlah besar untuk reaktor nuklir. Plutonium digunakan untuk senjata nuklir. Temuan unsur transuranium berikutnya adalah americium ( Ar = 95 ) dan curium ( Ar = 96 ). Unsur-unsur ini pada tabel periodik ditempatkan setelah aktinium dibawah unsur-unsur transisi d. Akan tetapi, Glenn T seaborg yang juga dari universitas berkeley mempostulatkan bahwa deret kedua unsur-unsur ditempatkan di bawah tabel periodik yakni dibawah lantanida seperti ditunjukkan pada tabel periodik modern. Unsur-unsur aktinida diharapkan memiliki sifat kimia serupa dengan lantanida.

Unsur-unsur transuranium memiliki sejumlah kegunaan komersial. Isotop Pu-238 hanya memancarkan radiasi alfa yang mudah dihentikan dengan pentabiran. Isotop ini digunakan sebagai sumber tenaga satelit ruang angkasa dan pelampung navigasi . Isotop Am-241 dipakai untuk pemancar sinar alfa dan gama. Sinar gamma digunakan dalam alat untuk mengukur ketebalan bahan seperti lemaran logam atau kertas. Isotop Am-241 juga digunakan untuk detektor asap di ruangan, dimana radiasi alfa mengionisasi udara dalam ruangan dan mengubah daya hantar listrik. Asap mengurangi daya hantar dari udara, dan pengurangan hantaran ini dideteksi oleh sensor yang terdapat di alarm.

Sumber Referensi : Yayan, Kimia Dasar II

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