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Mekanisme Penyepuhan Logam

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Electroplating

Penyepuhan atau nama lainya Electroplating merupakan salah satu teknik untuk melapisi suatu logam dengan logam lain melalui proses elektrolisis dengan tujuan untuk menghasilkan logam yang memiliki kualitas lebih baik. Contohnya tembaga sering dilapisi dengan emas atau perak agar tampak lebih berharga. Demikian juga logam besi yang mudah terkorosi sehingga sering dilapisi dengan logam lain yang tahan karat, misalnya dengan nikel atau krom.

Proses penyepuhan dilakukan melalui mekanisme berikut. Pertama sejumlah garam dari logam penyepuh dilarutkan ke dalam air sampai dihasilkan suatu larutan jenuh dari garam logam penyepuh. Kemudian logam penyepuh ditempatkan sebagai anoda sedangkan logam yang akan disepuh ditempatkan sebagai katoda. Setelah itu, arus listrik DC dialirkan ke rangkaian tersebut sehingga terjadilah proses elektrolisis, yang mana di anoda terjadi proses oksidasi dari logam penyepuh sehingga menyebabkan logam-logam penyepuh terionisasi membentuk ion-ion. Kemudian di katoda terjadi proses reduksi ion-ion logam penyepuh sehingga ion-ion logam penyepuh membentuk logam dan melapisi logam yang disepuh.

Agar kita lebih mudah memahaminya, mari kita contohkan dengan proses penyepuhan logam besi dengan logam perak. Logam besi ditempatkan sebagai katoda dan logam perak ditempatkan sebagai anoda, keduanya dicelupkan ke dalam larutan AgNO3. Di katoda akan terjadi proses reduksi ion-ion Ag+ membentuk logam perak yang menempel pada permukaan besi, sementara di anoda logam perak akan terionisasi membentuk ion-ion Ag+.


Selain digunakan dalam proses penyepuhan, elektrolisis juga sering digunakan dalam pemurnian beberapa logam. Misalnya, tembaga sebagai bahan penghantar listrik harus murni, yang dimurnikan dengan cara elektrolisis. Lempeng tembaga yang akan dimurnikan ditempatkan sebagai anoda dan logam tembaga murni ditempatkan sebagai katoda, keduanya dicelupkan ke dalam larutan CuSO4. Selama elektrolisis, ion tembaga dari tembaga tak murni akan bergerak menuju ke tembaga murni sehingga akan meninggalkan pengotor-pengotor dari logam tembaga tak murni seperti emas, perak dan platina yang membentuk endapan di dasar sel. Sedangkan pengotor dari logam yang reaktif akan tetap berada sebagai ion dalam larutan elektrolit. Setelah beberapa hari dalam proses elektrolisis, tembaga murni sebagai katoda menjadi lebih besar dan dikeluarkan dari sel elektrolisis.

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4 Responses to "Mekanisme Penyepuhan Logam"

  1. Tanda muatan pada gambar elektridenya keliru

    ReplyDelete
  2. apa ada elektrolit penyepuhan yang jadi mail CrNO3 ? atau kalau toh kita membuat sendiri berapa perbandingan antara cr dan NO3 nya agar larutan dapat digunakan sebagai elektrolit penyepuhan !

    ReplyDelete

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