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Penjelasan Teori Atom Rutherford Lengkap Kelebihan dan Kelemahannya

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Penjelasan Teori Atom Rutherford Lengkap Kelebihan dan Kelemahannya

Penjelasan Teori Atom Rutherford
Penjelasan Teori Atom Rutherford

Teori Atom Rutherford Lengkap Kelebihan dan Kelemahannya Lengkap - Dalam kesempatan Kali ini Panduankimia.net akan menjelaskan tentang Teori Atom Rutherford Lengkap Kelebihan dan Kelemahannya bagi teman - teman yang membutuhkan informasi materinya silahkan bisa baca baca dibawah ini.

Dimana diketahui bersama bahwa setelah diusulkannya teori atom Dalton dan Thomson, muncul teori yang lebih baru yang digagas oleh Ernerst Rutherford, yang sekarang dikenal dengan teori atom Rutherford.

Pada tahun 1911, Rutherford menyangkal kebenaran teori atom Thomson yang mengatakan bahwa atom merupakan bermuatan positif, dan disekelilingnya terdapat elektron bermuatan negatif layaknya roti kismis. Teori atom Rutherford mengatakan bahwa atom mempunyai inti yang merupakan pusat massa yang kemudian dinamakan nukleus, dengan dikelilingi awan elektron bermuatan negatif.

Dasar Teori Atom Rutherford
Teori atom Rutherford didasarkan pada eksperimen penembakan inti atom lempengan emas dengan partikel alfa yang dikenal dengan percobaan Geiger-Marsden. Pada saat itu, Rutherford menysun desain rancangan percobaan penembakan atom emas oleh partikel alfa yang dipancarkan oleh unsur radioaktif. Ternyata, sinar radioaktf tersebut ada yang dipantulkan, dibelokkan, dan diteruskan. 


Bunyi Teori Atom Rutherford
Rutherford melakukan penelitian tentang hamburan sinar α (alpha) pada lempeng emas. Hasil pengamatan tersebut dikembangkan dalam hipotesis model atom Rutherford:

  1. Sebagian besar dari atom merupakan permukaan kosong atau hampa.
  2. Atom memiliki inti atom bermuatan positif yang merupakan pusat massa atom.
  3. Elektron bergerak mengelilingi inti dengan kecepatan yang sangat tinggi.
  4. Sebagian besar partikel α lewat tanpa mengalami pembelokkan/hambatan. Sebagian kecil dibelokkan, dan sedikit sekali yang dipantulkan.
  5. Awan elektron tidak mempengaruhi penyebaran partikel alfa
Kelebihan Model Atom Rutherford


  1. Mudah dipahami untuk menjelaskan struktur atom yang rumit
  2. Dapat menjelaskan bentuk lintasan elektron yang mengelilingi inti atom
  3. Dapat menggambarkan gerak elektron disekitar inti

Kelemahan Model Atom Rutherford

  1. Menurut hukum fisika klasik, elektron yang bergerak mengelilingi inti memancarkan energi dalam bentuk gelombang elektromagnetik. Akibatnya, lama-kelamaan elektron itu akan kehabisan energi dan akhirnya menempel pada inti.
  2. Model atom rutherford ini belum mampu menjelaskan dimana letak elektron dan cara rotasinya terhadap inti atom.
  3. Elektron memancarkan energi ketika bergerak, sehingga energi atom menjadi tidak stabil.
  4. Tidak dapat menjelaskan spektrum garis pada atom hidrogen (H).

  Demikian lah Penjelasan Teori Atom Rutherford lengkap dengan kelebihan dan kekurangnya semoga artikel ini bisa membantu sobat sobat  semuanya.

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