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Contoh Soal Larutan Elektrolit dan Non Elektrolit : 21-30 Contoh Soal

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21. Jika senyawa CaF2 dilarutkan ke dalam air, maka spesi apa sajakah yang terdapat dalam larutan tersebut?

Jawaban : Molekul H2O ,molekul CaF2 ,ion Ca 2+,ion F- , molekul HF, OH-
 
Pembahasan : CaF2 Ca2+ + 2F-
 
F- + H2O → HF + OH-
 
CaF2 merupakan elektrolit lemah yang terionisasi sebagian dalam air.

22. Jika senyawa HClO3 dilarutkan ke dalam air, maka spesi apa sajakah yang terdapat dalam larutan tersebut?

Jawaban : molekul H2O , ion H+ dan ion ClO 3 -
 
Pembahasan : HMol ClO3 H+ + ClO 3-
 
HClO3 merupakan elektrolit kuat yang terionisasi sempurna di dalam air.

23. Sebanyak 18 gram zat Y dilarutkan ke dalam 500 mL air. Pada saat setimbang, zat Y tersisa sebanyak 0,094 mol. Berapakah derajat disosiasi zat Y tersebut ? (Mr =125)

Jawaban : 0,3472
 
Pembahasan :

Mol Zat mula-mula = gr/Mr = 18/125 = 0,144 mol

Jumlah Mol zat Terurai = Mol zat mula-mula - mol zat sisa = 0,144 - 0,094 = 0,05 mol

a = jumlah mol zat terurai /  jumlah mol zat mula-mula = 0,05/0,144 = 0,3472

Berarti Senyawa Ag(OH) merupakan senyawa elektrolit lemah sehingga a kecil


24. Sebanyak 48,5 gram senyawa H3PO4 dilarutkan ke dalam 1 L air. Pada saat setimbang, senyawa H3PO4 tersisa sebanyak 24,25 gram. Berapakah harga derajat ionisasi larutan tersebut ? (Diketahui Ar : P = 31 ; H = 1 ; O = 16)


Jawaban : 0,5
 
Pembahasan : 

Mol H3PO4 mula-mula = gr/Mr = 48,5/98 = 0,494 mol

Mol H3PO4 Sisa = gr/Mr = 24,5/98 = 0,24 mol

Jumlah mol zat Terurai = Jumlah mol zat mula-mula - mol zat sisa = 0,49 - 0,24 = 0,24 mol

a = Jumlah mol zat terurai / mol zat mula-mula = 0,24 / 0,49 = 0,5

H3PO4 merupakan elektrolit lemah sehingga nilai a kecil


25. Sebanyak 32 gram zat elektrolit dilarutkan ke dalam 0,8 L air. Jika zat elektrolit tersebut terdisosiasi sebanyak 0,75 mol, maka berapakah derajat disosiasi dari zat tersebut ! (Mr = 40 gram/mol )

Jawaban : 0,9375
 
Pembahasan :

Mol zat mula-mula  = Massa / Mr = 32/40 = 0,8 mol

a = Jumlah mol zat terurai / mol zat mula-mula = 0,75/0,8 = 0,9375 mol

Berarti senyawa NaOH merupakan elektrolit kuat karena nilai a nya hampir mendekati 1

26. Suatu zat A dilarutkan ke dalam 100ml air dengan konsentrasi 0,2 M . Jika larutan tersebut terionisasi sebanyak 2%, maka berapakah massa zat yang terurai ? (diketahui Mr zat A = 60)

Jawab : 0,024 gram
 
Pembahasan :

Mol = M x V = 0,2 x 0,1 L = 0,02 mol

a = jumlah mol zat terurai  / jumlah mol zat mula-mula
0,02 =  jumlah mol zat terurai / 0,02

Jumlah mol zat terurai = 0,02 x 0,02 = 0,0004

Massa Zat Terurai =  n x Mr = 0,0004 x 60 = 0,024 gr

27. Suatu zat X dilarutkan ke dalam 150 ml air dengan konsentrasi 0,5 M.. jika larutan tersebut terdisosiasi sebanyak 7%. Maka berapakah massa zat yang tersisa? (diketahui Mr zat X = 47 g/mol)

Jawab : 3, 2782 gram
 
Pembahasan : 

Mol = M x V = 0,5 x 0,15 = 0,075 mol

a = 7%

Jumlah mol zat terurai =  0,07 x 0,075 = 0,00525

Jumlah Mol zat yang tersisa =  0,075 - 0,00525 = 0,06975

Massa Zat tersisa =  n x Mr = 0,06975 x 47 = 3,278 gr 

28.  Perhatikan Keterangan Dibawah!
I. Larutan HClO4
II. Larutan CHCl3
III. Larutan C5H11OH
IV. Larutan HCl

Manakah larutan yang tergolong kedalam larutan elektrolit kuat?

Jawaban : I dan IV
 
Pembahasan :


Karena larutan HClO4 dan larutan HCl mengalami ionisasi sempurna didalam air, sehingga menghasilkan daya hantar listrik yang kuat.

29. Perhatikan Keterangan Dibawah Ini!

I. Larutan NaI
II. Larutan C8H17OH
III. Larutan CCl4

Manakah larutan yang tergolong kedalam larutan non elektrolit?

Jawaban : II dan III

Pembahasan :
 
karena larutan C8H17OH dan larutan CCl4 tidak terurai menjadi ion-ion saat Larutan Li2SO4
dilarutkan dalam air, sehingga tidak dapat menghantarkan listrik


30. Perhatikan Keterangan Dibawah ini !

I. Larutan HgCl2
II. Larutan HClO3
III. Larutan HBrO3
IV. Larutan Al(OH)3
 
Manakah larutan yang tergolong kedalam larutan elektrolit kuat?

Jawaban : II dan III
 
Pembahasan :
 
Larutan HClO3 dan larutan HBrO3 mengalami ionisasi sempurna didalam air, sehingga menghasilkan daya hantar listrik yang kuat.
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