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Manusia sebagai mahluk sosial

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MANUSIA SEBAGAI MAHLUK SOSIAL 

Manusia sebagai mahluk sosial

Kecenderungan manusia untuk hidup berkelompok sebenarnya bukanlah sekedar suatu naluri atau keperluan yang diwariskan secara biologis semata-mata. Akan tetapi dalam  kenyataannya manusia berkumpul sampai batas-batas tertentu juga menunjukkan adanya suatu ikatan sosial tertentu. Mereka berkumpul dan saling berinteraksi satu sama lain. Interaksi antar manusia merupakan suatu kebutuhan dalam rangka untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya. Individu yang satu pasti akan membutuhkan individu yang lain, karena seorang individu tidak akan bisa hidup sendiri tanpa bantuan individu lain. Jadi kehidupan berkelompok merupakan kebutuhan mutlak. Maka timbullah kelompok-kelompok sosial (social group) di dalam kehidupan manusia. Kelompok-kelompok sosial tersebut merupakan himpunan atau kesatuan manusia yang hidup bersama.
1) STATUS DAN PERAN INDIVIDU SDALAM MASYARAKAT
Status adalah jenjang atau posisi seseorang dalam suatu kelompok, atau dari satu kelompok dalam hubungannya dengan kelompok lain. Adapun peran diartikan sebagai suatu konsep fungsional yang menjelaskan fungsi atau tugas seseorang.  Dengan demikian dapat dikatakan bahwa status dan peran merupakan dua hal yang saling berkaitan. Status menunjuk pada siapa orangnya, sedangkan peran menunjukkan apa yang dilakukan oleh orang itu.
2) PERUBAHAN SOSIAL
Bentuk-bentuk Perubahan Sosial Budaya:
- Difusi; penyebaran budaya tidak langsung akibat interaksi sosial 2 kelompok masyarakat .
- Akulturasi; pencampuran budaya menghasilkan budaya baru tanpa menghilangkan budaya asli
- Asimilasi; pencampuran budaya menghasilkan budaya baru dan menghilangkan budaya asli
- Invensi; penggunaan penemuan-penemuan baru karena manfaatnya
- Revolusi; perubahan yang diinginkan masyarakat akibat adanya krisis
3) DILEMA ANTARA INDIVIDU DAN SOSIAL
Manusia sebagai makhluk individu dan makhluk sosial selalu terdiri daridua kepentingan, yaitu ke pentingan individu yang termasuk kepentingankeluarga, kelompok atau golongan dan kepentingan masyarakat yang termasukkepentingan rakyat.  Dalam diri manusia, kedua kepentingan itu satu sama lain tidak dapat dipisahkan. Apabila salah satu kepentingan tersebut hilang dari diri manusia, akan terdapat satu manusia yang tidak bisa membedakan suatu kepentingan, jika kepentingan individu yang hilang dia menjadi lupa pada keluarganya, jika kepentingan masyarakat yang dihilangkan dari diri manusia banyak timbul masalah kemasyarakatan contohnya korupsi. Inilah yang menyebabkan kebingungan atau dilema manusia jika mereka tidak bisa membagi kepentingan individu dan kepentingan masyarakat. Persoalan pengutamaan kepentingan individu atau masyarakat ini memunculkan dua pandangan yang berkembang menjadi paham/aliran bahkan ideologi yang dipegang oleh suatu kelompok masyarakat.

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